Top 9 Scientists Of Ancient India (Many Are Still Unknown)

India, as one of the world’s oldest civilizations, has a rich history of scholars and scientists who made groundbreaking contributions to various fields. Despite the lack of proper recognition in some cases, their work laid the foundation for numerous scientific principles and mathematical concepts.

Let’s explore the remarkable achievements of some of these ancient Indian scientists:


Baudhayana, a revered mathematician of ancient India (800–740 B.C.), is often overshadowed in history. He delved into mathematics through his religious involvement, creating the Pythagorean theorem almost a millennium before Pythagoras. His Sulba Sutras not only detailed mathematical formulas for Vedic rituals but also included insights on constructing circles and squares of similar areas.


Born in 475 A.D. in Kusumpura (modern-day Patna), Aryabhatta was a mathematical prodigy. At the age of 23, he penned the Aryabhatiya, showcasing his profound knowledge. Aryabhatta’s greatest gift to mathematics was the concept of zero, a groundbreaking idea that transformed numerical systems. His work also extended to astronomy, proposing a heliocentric model of the solar system.

Maharishi Kanad

Maharishi Kanad, a philosopher and neuroscientist, is believed to have lived between the 6th and 2nd centuries BCE. Known as Aulukya, he introduced the atomic theory in a systematic manner through his Vaisesika Sutra or Kanada Sutra. Kanad explained the composition of matter with invisible units, contributing significantly to ancient Indian philosophy and science.


A luminary of the 7th century, Brahmagupta made lasting contributions to mathematics, elucidating concepts around positive and negative numbers and zero. His seminal work, Brahmas-Phuta-Siddhanta, explained the rules for handling these numbers without using formal mathematical notations. His teachings significantly impacted mathematical astronomy in ancient India.

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Maharishi Patanjali

The legendary Maharishi Patanjali, believed to have lived between the 4th and 7th centuries BCE, left an indelible mark on yoga and grammar. Revered as the father of yoga, he organized the oral tradition of yoga into 195 sutras. His contributions extended to classical Sanskrit grammar, where he followed in the footsteps of Panini and Katyayana.


Sushruta, a pioneering physician and surgeon in ancient India, earned the titles “Father of Indian Surgery” and “Father of Plastic Surgery.” In his work “Sushruta Samhita,” written around 600 BCE, he detailed 1,120 illnesses and their medical procedures, along with insights into plant and animal sources for medicinal preparations.


In the 12th century, Bhaskaracharya emerged as a luminary mathematician and astronomer. His work included simplifying mathematical equations, predating European mathematicians by centuries. Bhaskaracharya’s discoveries in calculus, centuries ahead of Newton and Leibniz, elevated the field of mathematics in ancient India.


Nagarjuna, a Buddhist scientist of the 10th century, showcased expertise in alchemy and metallurgy. His experiments, while not successful in turning base elements into gold, led to the creation of elements resembling gold. His treatise, Rasaratnakara, outlined methods for extracting metals like iron, silver, tin, and copper, leaving a lasting impact.

Mahavir Acharya

Born in the 9th century, Mahavir Acharya made significant contributions to algebra. His work, “Ganita-Sara-Sangraha” (Guitarra Sangraha), contained over 1,130 verified mathematical rules and equations, covering diverse mathematical subjects with clarity. Mahavir Acharya’s concise explanations showcased advancements in algebra.

The enduring legacy of these ancient Indian scientists and scholars, their contributions in mathematics, astronomy, medicine, and philosophy, continues to shape our understanding of science and technology. Their insights, often ahead of their time, laid the groundwork for future discoveries and innovations.

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Shiba Prasad

Shiba Prasad

I've been captivated by India's ancient history and Vedic culture. What began as a hobby, reading books on Hinduism, has now turned into my full-time commitment, researching and writing for this blog. When not working, I enjoy spending time with friends.

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